Proteins, proteomics

alpha 1-antichymotrypsin

alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin (ACT) is an an acute phase protein synthesized in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines early in the inflammatory response.

ACT is a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family that inhibits neutrophilic proteinases – chymotrypsin, cathepsin G, chymases from mast cells, and elastase – protecting tissue from damage by these proteolytic enzymes. ACT is a glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin contains a reactive centre loop that interacts with cognate proteinases, resulting in loop cleavage and a major conformational change.

As an acute phase protein, ACT is active in the control of immune and inflammatory responses, and acts as a tumor marker. ACT inhibits CTL-mediated lysis (CML).

ACT has been identified as a major constituent of the neurofibrillary plaques associated with Alzheimers disease, where it probably enhances the rate of amyloid-fibril formation. Genetic data also suggests that alpha 1-antichymotrypsin is important in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.[s]


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. . . since 11/21/06